Terms and Definitions

Aid in Danger

Monthly News Brief
Any act of verbal or physical violence, obstruction, or threat of violence that interferes with the availability, access, and provision of aid. 

Killed, Kidnapped and Arrested (KKA)
Killed: Refers to a staff member being killed.
Kidnapped: Refers to a staff member being kidnapped, missing or taken hostage.
Arrested: Refers to a staff member being arrested, charged, detained, fined or imprisoned. 


Definition of Arrest
Arrest: Deprivation of liberty following accusations of or being charged with a crime.
Charges: Formal legal charge made by a governmental authority asserting that someone has committed a crime.
Detention: Keeping a person in custody prior to official charges or without any official charges; includes temporary detention for hours or days.
Fines: An amount of money that must be paid as a punishment for not obeying a rule or law.
Imprisonment: Holding a person in a known official or unknown location, such as a jail or prison, often following formal charges.

Arrest Context
Administrative: Abuse of power (demands for payments in return for release/corrupt activity by the arresting body) and the application/implementation of regulations (searches in hotels or other locations usually focused on the identification of the individual).
Personal Behaviour: Drunken and disorderly behaviour, disputes, illegal weapon or drug possession, fraudulent activity, sexual offences, cyber crime, arrest following a road traffic accident, or accusations of offensive social media activity.
Personal Profile: An individual’s identity, physical appearance, ethnicity, sexual orientation, refusal of military service, or other.
Aid Work-Related: Being questioned on agency activities, accusations about aid delivery or the diversion of aid to specific communities or aid delivery by specific donors. 
Political Activism or Political Activities by an Agency or Individual: Positions on the death penalty or the rights of specific groups; accusations of political activities by an agency or individual (including membership of alleged terrorist or opposition groups), which are denied by the individual or organisation; or social media activity considered by state authorities to be encouraging opposition sentiments. 


Injuries and Assaults
Beaten: Refers to a staff member being assaulted, usually carried out with body parts (fist, feet) or objects.      
Wounded: Refers to a staff member being injured. Most injuries are inflicted with either firearms or explosive weapons.  


Crime
Any criminally-motivated event that affected agency or staff property. A crime is an illegal action or activity for which a person can be punished by law.
Armed Robbery: Events in which a) the perpetrator was armed (with any weapon, including knives), b) the staff member was present during the incident and fully aware of being robbed and c) assets were taken.
Arson: Someone deliberately and maliciously set fire to agency buildings, vehicles or wildland that affected the delivery of aid.
Blackmail: Threats, extortion or the manipulation of someone to compel them to do something.
Break In: Illegal, forced entry into aid agency premises or vehicles, usually with the intention to steal.  
Burglary: Break-in at staff residence, aid office or warehouse, usually with the intention to steal.
Carjacking: The forced stopping and then taking an agency or supply vehicle.
Cyber Attack: Deliberate exploitation of computer systems, technology-dependent enterprises and networks resulting in disruptive consequences that can compromise data and lead to cyber crimes.
Extortion: Practice of obtaining something, especially money, through force or threats.
Fraud: Wrongful or criminal deception intended to result in financial or personal gain.
Intrusion: Wrongfully entering aid agency premises, vehicles or staff residencies.
Looting: Theft during unrest, violence, riots or other upheavals.
Piracy: The practice of attacking and robbing ships at sea or boats on rivers.
Robbery: Taking of items directly from the victim or in the victim’s presence, usually following threatening behaviour to demand that the item be handed over. This may include assaulting the victim. Robberies can occur within residences, offices or outside.
Theft: Stealing of items in the absence of the owner. This can include burglaries into residences or offices when the person is absent.
Vandalism: Refers to the deliberate destruction of or damage to agency or staff property.


Damage and Destruction of Organisational Infrastructure
Damage: Organisational infrastructure was damaged, including partially destroyed and heavily damaged. 
Destruction: Organisational infrastructure was destroyed.

Sexual Violence and Abuse

Our project distinguishes between:
Preventing Sexual Exploitation and Abuse (PSEA): Occurs when an aid worker or field staff member attempts or performs acts of sexual exploitation, violence or abuse on children, families, and communities where they are working.
Sexual Violence in the Aid Workplace: Occurs when a person attempts or performs acts of sexual violence on a colleague, peer, former employee or volunteer at work.  

Unwanted Sexual Comments. Verbal advances that include whistling, shouting, and/or saying sexually explicit or implicit phrases or propositions that are unwanted by the survivor.       
Unwanted Sexual Touching: Touching of an unwanted sexual nature regardless of the intensity of touch. Can include massage, groping, grabbing, or grazing of any part of another person’s body.      
Sexual Harassment: Unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favours, and other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature when they affect the employment of the targeted person when a) submission to such conduct is made either explicitly or implicitly a term or condition of an individual’s employment, or b) submission to or rejection of such conduct by an individual is used as a basis for employment decisions affecting such individual, or c) such conduct has the purpose or effect of unreasonably interfering with an individual’s work performance or creating an intimidating, hostile, or offensive working environment.
Aggressive Sexual Behaviour: Potentially violent behaviour focused on gratifying sexual drives.
Attempted Sexual Assault: Attempted act of sexual contact on the body of another person without his or her consent.     
Sexual Assault: Act of sexual contact on the body of another person without his or her consent.  
Rape: Sexual intercourse (vaginal or anal penetration) against the will and without the consent of the person.    
Other: Acts of a sexual nature that do not fall into other categories, such as the taking or sharing of nude pictures or videos without permission.

Attacks on Health Care


Key definitions
Health worker: Any person working in a professional or voluntary capacity in the provision of health services or who provides direct support to patients, including administrators, ambulance personnel, community health workers, dentists, doctors, government health officials, hospital staff, medical education staff, nurses, midwives, paramedics, physiotherapists, surgeons, vaccination workers, volunteers, or any other health personnel not named here.
Health worker affected: Describes events in which at least one health worker was killed, injured, kidnapped, arrested, or experienced sexual violence, threats, or harassment.
Health facility: Any facility that provides direct support to patients, including clinics, hospitals, laboratories, makeshift hospitals, medical education facilities, mobile clinics, pharmacies, warehouses, or any other health facility not named here.
Health facility affected: Describes events in which at least one health facility was damaged, destroyed, or subjected to armed entry, military occupation, or looting.
Health transport: Any vehicle used to transport any injured or ill person, or woman in labour, to a health facility to receive medical care.
Health transport affected: Describes events in which at least one ambulance or other health transport was damaged, destroyed, hijacked, or delayed, with or without a person requiring medical assistance on board.



Monthly News Brief
Any act of verbal or physical violence, obstruction, or threat of violence that interferes with the availability, access, and delivery of curative and/or preventive health services.
Included: Any event in which health workers, health facilities or the process of delivering health care including an act of verbal or physical violence, obstruction, or threat of violence that interferes with the availability, access, and delivery of curative and/or preventive health services. These include actions that lead to large scale interference in the provision of health care such as strikes and protests and attacks by any person or group of people including criminal gangs, patients or their relatives.


Safeguarding Health in Conflict Coalition (SHCC)
Any act of verbal or physical violence, obstruction, or threat of violence that interferes with the availability, access, and delivery of curative and/or preventive health services in countries experiencing conflict if they are perpetrated by an actor in a conflict.
Included: Any attack on health care because of attacks on health workers, health facilities or the process of delivering health care including an act of verbal or physical violence, obstruction, or threat of violence that interferes with the availability, access, and delivery of curative and/or preventive health services that is carried out by an actor linked to conflict (state forces or non-state actors).
Excluded: Other actions of interference in the provision of health care such as strikes and protests. Attacks on health care carried out by non-conflict actors such as criminals, patients, other civilians.

We use the SHCC definition for the SHCC dataset’s and for selective events published in the Monthly News Brief.

Education in Danger

Monthly News Brief
Any act of verbal or physical violence, obstruction, or threat of violence that interferes with the availability, access, and provision of education.
Included: Any attack on education because of attacks on educators, schools or education facilities or the process of providing education including an act of verbal or physical violence, obstruction, or threat of violence that interferes with the availability, access, and provision of education, including events perpetrated by state actors, non-state actors, students, private individuals and criminals as well as significant strike action or protests by students.


Global Coalition to Protect Education from Attack (GCPEA)
The use threatened or actual use of force by state forces or non-state armed groups to target students, education personnel, or educational infrastructure or materials for political, military, ideological, sectarian, ethnic, or religious reasons. Attacks that clearly have criminal motivations, or that are perpetrated by lone wolf actors are not included.

GCPEA has six sub-categories of attacks on education:
Attacks on Schools: Targeted violent attacks or threats of violent attack on primary or secondary school infrastructure, or collateral damage to that infrastructure due to indiscriminate fighting or attacks. Examples include arson, explosive attacks, airstrikes, shelling, or crossfire.
Attacks on Students, Teachers, and other Education Personnel: Targeted violent attacks or threats of attack on primary or secondary school students or educators, which take place in school settings or on the way to or from school, or otherwise target these individuals for education-related reasons. Also included are cases in which repression to silence students or education personnel in the context of education (e.g. in school settings or in the case that they are protesting education-related issues). Examples include targeted killings, injuries, torture, abductions, forced disappearances, or threats of violence
Military Use of Schools or Universities: Cases in which armed forces or non-state armed groups occupy schools and use them for purposes that support a military effort, such as bases, barracks, and temporary shelters for those associated with fighting forces; for fighting positions, weapons storage facilities, and detention and interrogation centers; and for military training or drilling soldiers.
Child Recruitment at, or en route to or from, School: Cases in which state forces forcibly recruit children from their schools or school routes in violation of international standards, or cases in which non-state armed groups use schools or school routes as locales for recruiting girls and boys in violation of international standards. Children may be recruited as fighters, spies, or intelligence sources; for domestic work; to transport weapons or other materials; or for any other purposes associated with the armed group.
Sexual Violence by Armed Parties at, or en route to or from, School or University: Cases in which state security forces or non-state armed groups rape, sexually harass, or abuse students or educators; abduct students or educators for sexual purposes; recruit students or educators to serve a sexual function in an armed force or armed group; or threaten to engage in such conduct.
Attacks on Higher Education: Targeted violent attacks or threats of violent attack on higher education infrastructure or collateral damage to that infrastructure due to indiscriminate fighting or attacks. Also includes targeted violent attacks or threats of attack targeted university students, professors, or personnel, as well as cases in which repression is used to students or education personnel in the context of education.
Education Personnel: Anyone working professionally in the education system, or volunteering at any level of the education system, including teachers, academics, education support and transport staff (e.g., education administrators, janitors, bus drivers, librarians), or education officials.
Educational Facilities and Materials: Any facility providing education or resource which is used to support the educational process, including kindergartens, schools, universities, technical and vocational education training institutes, textbook and school warehouse facilities, vehicles carrying school supplies, school buses, etc.