Between 2019 and 2020, there was an increase in violence against civilians in Mozambique. The majority of reports are from the northern Cabo Delgado province where Islamist militias have increased their activities during the past years.
Perpetrators of this violence include Ansar Al-Sunna wa Jama’ah (ASWJ) who are active in the north, and RENAMO Military Junta (RMJ) who have carried out attacks in the central provinces. The Military Forces of Mozambique and the police have also been implicated in violence against civilians, particularly during conflict with non-state armed groups. Private military contractors have also been accused of indiscriminately firing at civilians.
Conflict has led to an increase in displacement, particularly in Cabo Delgado, placing IDPs at greater risk of being attacked by militant groups as well as government forces. In Cabo Delgado education and health care were often attacked during raids on villages and more general attacks on civilians.
Violence against food produces has contributed to food insecurity. During 2020, humanitarian access decreased as a result of the highly insecure environment.