Updated 22/05/2021

Between 2019 and 2020, there was an increase in violence against civilians in Mozambique. The majority of reports are from the northern Cabo Delgado province where Islamist militias have increased their activities during the past years.

Perpetrators of violence include Ansar Al-Sunna wa Jama’ah (ASWJ) who are active in the north, and RENAMO Military Junta (RMJ) who have carried out attacks in the central provinces. The Military Forces of Mozambique and the police have also been implicated in violence against civilians. Private military contractors have also been accused of indiscriminately firing at civilians.

Conflict has led to an increase in displacement, particularly in Cabo Delgado, placing IDPs at greater risk of being attacked by militant groups as well as government forces.

In Cabo Delgado education and health care were often attacked during raids on villages and more general attacks on civilians.

Violence against food produces has contributed to food insecurity. During 2020, humanitarian access decreased as a result of the highly insecure environment.

2021 Safeguarding Health in Conflict Coalition (SHCC) Report

The SHCC 14 incidents of violence against or obstruction of health care in Mozambique in 2020, compared to three such incidents in 2019. Health facilities were damaged or destroyed and health workers were injured in these incidents.

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Aid in Danger

During 2020, an increase in indiscriminate violence and insecurity increased humanitarian needs but put key aid programmed related to food security, health and education in jeopardy. Indiscriminate violence and insecurity forced aid agencies operating in conflict-affected regions to suspend their activities. Data

Read the Vigil InSight Situation Report on aid security in the Cabo Delgado.
Listen to the Vigil InSight Voiceover.

Health Care

Compared to 2019, in 2020 there was an increase in attacks on health care. Health facilities were attacked and burnt down during attacks on villages in Cabo Delgado and health workers were attacked and killed during ambushes on health transportation. Perpetrators were primarily unnamed Islamist militants, ASWJ militants and RENAMO militants. Data

Our Global Interactive Map on Threats and Violence against Health Care provides access to continuously updated information on violence against health care in conflict and related to COVID-19.


In 2020, school were set on fire, vandalized or damaged, often during more general attacks on civilians in Cabo Delgado province. Educators were also targeted, abducted and killed by militant groups in Cabo Delgado province and Sofala province. The main perpetrators of these attacks were non-state armed groups, particularly Islamist militants in Cabo Delgado province and RENAMO militants in Sofala province.

Social Media Monitoring

Insecurity Insight monitors and examines social media to identify when it is used to spread false information and incite violence against aid providers. In Mozambique social media commentators claim that the war against Islamist insurgents is being orchestrated by the government in an attempt to continue receiving funds from the European Union and elsewhere.

Insecurity in natural disasters

In March and April 2019 Mozambique was hit by two consecutive tropical cyclones that left widespread death, damage and destruction, displacing thousands of people. Between 21 to 31 March and again between 3 May to 19 May 2019, Insecurity Insight partnered with Standby Task Force, to monitor local news and social media sources in the aftermath of the Cyclone Idai.

Read our Threat Analysis report for trends on verified safety, security and access incidents.