Conflict and instability have been a persistent feature of Somali life for over two decades. The Somali government and its army hold the capital, Mogadishu. Meanwhile, much of northern Somalia is under the de facto governance of the self-declared states of Somaliland and Puntland. However, the rest of country’s territory is either disputed or controlled by a large variety of armed groups, the most influential of which are al-Shabaab and the Islamic State group. Beyond violence, Somalia’s humanitarian crisis is exacerbated by five consecutive below-average rainy seasons since late 2020 and global food price rises following the war in Ukraine. This has contributed to a situation in which 7.8 million people in Somalia were estimated to require humanitarian assistance as of September 2022.